The global cryosphere — all the areas with frozen water on Earth — shrank by about 87,000 square kilometers per year on average between 1979 and 2016, as a result of climate change, according to a new study.
The extent of land covered by frozen water is just as important as its mass because the bright white surface reflects sunlight so effectively, cooling the planet. Changes in the size or location of ice and snow can alter air temperatures, change the sea level, and even affect ocean currents worldwide.
The researchers from Lanzhou University in China calculated the daily extent of the cryosphere and averaged those values to come up with yearly estimates. While the extent of the cryosphere grows and shrinks with the seasons, they found that the average area covered by Earth’s cryosphere has contracted overall since 1979, correlating with rising air temperatures. The new study is published in Earth’s Future.
“The cryosphere is one of the most sensitive climate indicators and the first one to demonstrate a changing world,” said first author Xiaoqing Peng, a physical geographer at Lanzhou University. “Its change in size represents a major global change, rather than a regional or local issue.”
The shrinkage primarily occurred in the Northern Hemisphere, with a loss of about 102,000 square km each year. Those losses are offset slightly by growth in the Southern Hemisphere, where the cryosphere expanded by about 14,000 square kilometers annually. This growth mainly occurred in the sea ice in the Ross Sea around Antarctica, likely due to patterns of wind and ocean currents and the addition of cold meltwater from Antarctic ice sheets.
The estimates showed that not only was the global cryosphere shrinking but that many regions remained frozen for less time. The average first day of freezing now occurs about 3.6 days later than in 1979, and the ice thaws about 5.7 days earlier.
CBSE declares Class 12 board exam results
The Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE) on Friday declared results for class 12 board examinations.
Students can now check their results at cbseresults.nic.in and cbse.gov.in.
The CBSE in a tweet today advised the students to keep their roll number handy for quick reference.
It also said that students can use the Roll Number Finder facility on
http://cbseit.in/cbse/2021/rfinder/landing.aspx for easier access to their results.
“Students, keep your Roll Number handy for quick reference. Use the Roll Number Finder facility on http://cbseit.in/cbse/2021/rfinder/landing.aspx. Results can also be downloaded from DigiLocker,” said CBSE in a tweet.
Security forces launch search operation in Samba
Security forces in Jammu and Kashmir launched a massive search operation in Samba district.
The search operation was launched after suspected drone activities were reported in three different areas of the district, last night.
Senior Superintendent of Police (SSP) Samba Rajesh Sharma said, “Drone activities were suspected at three different areas of Samba district, last night.”
The Border Security Force (BSF) also issued a statement that said, “Some unidentified lights were seen in the sky near the international border in the Samba sector. Few rounds were fired on it and the lights disappeared.”
Earlier on July 16, a drone that was operating around the Jammu Air Base was picked up by the radars of the anti-drone system deployed by the National Security Guard (NSG) there.
The NSG had deployed an anti-drone system in the city after a drone attack took place on the Jammu air base last month.
The Air Force has also taken measures to prevent any such attack in Jammu and other important airbases across the country. It has also taken strict measures to address threats from small drones.
After the Jammu attack, the number of drone sightings has gone up drastically and there have been several instances where the Army and Border Security Forces (BSF) troops at the border have fired at them.
Big decision by J&K administration: Details Here
The Jammu and Kashmir government announced a sanction of Rs 25 lakh in favour of the Next of Kins of the elected councillors of Municipal bodies, who have been killed in militancy-related incidents in the Union Territory.
An order issued by Principal Secretary to the government, Dheeraj Gupta, Sanction is hereby accorded to the payment of Ex-gratia compensation in favour of elected Councilors of Municipal Bodies of Union Territory of Jammu and Kashmir killed in militancy-related incidents.
Read the Order
Govt announces ex-gratia of Rs Rs 25 lakh, to be given to next of kins (NOKs) of elected councillors, who were killed in militancy related incidents in the Union Territory: Jammu & Kashmir Government pic.twitter.com/Pudd1JZidB
— JK Media (@jkmediasocial) July 30, 2021
The order has been issued in reference to the Administrative Council’s decision under number 84/13/2020 dated 15-07-2020.
The order reads that the ex-gratia compensation shall be paid to the next of kin (NOK) of the deceased by the Government through concerned Deputy Commissioners/ District Development Commissioners.
“The Deputy Commissioner concerned shall prepare, process and submit the case regarding payment of Ex-gratia through Housing and Urban Development Department,” it reads.
It further reads that on the receipt of the case, Housing and Urban Development Department shall forward the case to the Finance Department for release/payment of ex-gratia in favour of NOKs of the deceased.
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